The refugee crisis in Syria has highlighted the refugee work of Mennonite Central Committee Ontario (MCC Ontario) in the Mennonite and other communities in Ontario. Donations, including $10,000 from the City of Kitchener, are flowing in, and planning for the arrival of Syrian refugees is underway.
Mennonite Central Committee Ontario formally began in 1963, though MCC as a relief agency has existed in the United States since 1920. It has been the inter-Mennonite relief and service agency that has allowed almost all theological stripes of Mennonites to cooperate in helping to relieve suffering in the world.
The roots of MCC, however, go back much further than 1920. One could say inter-Mennonite cooperation began over 200 years ago in Upper Canada when Mennonites and Brethren in Christ leaders together petitioned the government for recognition of their pacifism prior to the War of 1812.
The Mennonites and the Amish Mennonites cooperated in the 1820s when the Amish began to settle in what became Wilmot Township of Waterloo Region. Mennonite leaders went with Christian Nafziger when he first approached the Upper Canadian authorities about the availability of land for potential Amish settlers. When they arrived many Amish families first lived with Mennonite families in Waterloo Township, while husbands and sons built the first pioneer buildings on their land.
But here I want to talk more about the “organized” cooperative efforts, where committees were established to work at projects that could not be carried out by one group alone. These cooperative ventures also included the full theological spectrum of Mennonites at the time the organization was required.
I will mention two of these organized efforts this week, and four others in the following two weeks.
Russian Aid Committee
The Russian Aid Committee was established in the 1870s to assist Mennonites from Russia who were immigrating to “reserves” established in Manitoba for them by the Canadian government. These Mennonites represented groups who feared the possible loss of privileges in Russia, both in the right to avoid military service and to control the education of their children.
Jacob Y. Shantz, shown here with his wife, Sarah, was the leader of this committee. He traveled numerous times to Manitoba to explore the situation, and later to Manitoba and further west to see how the settlements were faring. He was effectively the secretary-treasurer of the Russian Aid Committee that was established to find loans for immigrants who needed assistance, and to guarantee government loans that were extended to the immigrants.
Ironically, this committee functioned at the time when the Mennonite Conference of Ontario was experiencing a major division that resulted in the formation of the Mennonite Brethren in Christ (now called the Evangelical Missionary Church of Canada).
Jacob Y. Shantz joined the new group in 1874 when the division occurred, but two months later he was working on a committee with Amish bishop John Gascho and conservative Mennonite businessman and newly ordained minister, Elias Schneider. Although they differed in their religious views, they were able to work together on a common cause. The committee managed loans of almost $100,000 from the government, along with another $33,000 in personal loans from Mennonites in Ontario to Mennonites in Manitoba.
World War I
Samuel F. Coffman and his wife, Ella, came to Canada from Elkhart, Indiana where they both grew up. (See an earlier article of Ella here.) “S. F.” Coffman never became a Canadian citizen, though he lived in Vineland over 50 years. So it is interesting that during World War I he became the primary spokesman for Ontario Mennonites in addressing the Canadian government on the matter of exemption from military service for Mennonites.
When conscription came in 1917, the Mennonite Conference of Ontario, the Amish Mennonites and the Old Order Mennonites sent a delegation to Ottawa to seek clarification on the position of the peace churches. After an relatively unsatisfactory meeting, the inter-Mennonite delegation appointed Coffman to carry on further correspondence with the governmental authorities. This he did, also providing assistance to the Old Order Amish, the Brethren in Christ and the Mennonite Brethren in Christ along the way.
This communication included direct correspondence with Prime Minister Borden, Deputy Minister Edmund Newcombe, local Members of Parliament and Justice Lyman Duff, who heard final appeals on Mennonite conscription cases. From his experience in World War I, Coffman remained surprisingly optimistic that nonresistance could be protected in Canada, even in time of war. And the somewhat unified Ontario Mennonite voice would soon lead to even greater inter-Mennonite cooperation on matters of relief, which will be discussed next week.
To learn more about Mennonite Central Committee and it earlier roots, read In Search of Promised Lands.
Read Part II
Read Part III