Table of Contents

Maps and Tables 13
Foreword 15
Author’s Preface 17
Acknowledgments 21
1: European Mennonites and Amish Venture to North America, 1680s–1790s  23
Early Pennsylvania Settlements 25
The French and Indian War 31
The Revolutionary War 33
Pennsylvania Mennonite Faith in the Mid-Eighteenth Century 37
Pietism.39
Mennonites at the End of the Revolutionary War 49
Meanwhile in Polish Prussia 51
Conclusions 52
2: Settling on the Canadian Frontier, 1780s–1830s  55
Mennonite Loyalists in Niagara? 56
Mennonites East of the Niagara River 60
The Thirty Settlement.61
The Twenty Community 62
First Nations and the Grand River 64
Mennonites Come to the Grand River 66
The Beasley Mortgage 69
Mennonite-Aboriginal Relations 71
Looking to York County 73
York County Amish 74
Early Settlement and Church Life 75
War of 1812 and Mennonite Pacifism 81
The Amish Settlement in Wilmot 84
Conclusions 88
3: Religious Renewal Divides Canada West’s Mennonites, 1830s–1870s  91
Reformed Mennonite Church 93
Mennonites and the Evangelical Association  95
Mid-Niagara Peninsula Renewal 98
Renewal at Waterloo 100
York County Renewal 105
Reformed Mennonite Growth 106
The “New Mennonites” 108
General Conference Mennonite or Evangelical Mennonite? 113
Failed Reconciliation 116
The Mennonite Church of Canada 117
Amish House Churches and the Holdeman Mennonites 121
Mennonites and Blacks in the Mid-Nineteenth Century 122
Conclusions  122
4: Assurance of Salvation versus Faithful Living: Diverse Theological Lands, 1870s–1890s  125
Solomon Eby and the Reforming Mennonites 129
United Mennonites to Mennonite Brethren in Christ  134
Innovation in Mission and Doctrine 135
Women in Ministry 138
Cooperation in Mutual Aid for Mennonites from Russia 140
Moving toward English  142
Old Order Mennonites Emerge  144
The Amish  151
Ontario Amish Settlements in 1881  152
Conclusions  155
5: New Frontiers in Missions and Service, 1890s–1910s  157
English Gospel Music  159
Ontario Isn’t the Promised Land  163
The Appeal of Missions—Foreign and City Outreach  166
Formation of Women’s Organizations  176
Bible School Training for Missions  178
Congregational Bible Teaching  182
Further Division  184
Conclusions  187
6: World War I Unites, Theology and Nonconformity Divide, 1910s–1920s  189
Surprised by World War I  191
Failed Negotiations with the Government  195
Accommodation of Sorts  203
Non-Resistant Relief Organization  205
The Lure of Fundamentalism and Pentecostalism  208
First Mennonite Church in Kitchener Divides  224
“Dress” in Other Mennonite Groups  226
The Amish Mennonites Organize  227
Conclusions  229
7: Mennonites from the Soviet Union Enrich Ontario Mennonite Culture, 1920s–1930s  231
Contemplating Russian Mennonite Immigration  233
The Crisis in Russia  236
One Family’s Experience  238
Immigration and the Clash of Cultures  241
Settling in to Canada  248
The Kirchliche, Mennonite Brethren, and Allianzgemeinde  254
Forming Immigrant Churches  256
Conclusions  264
8: Maintaining Separation from the World, 1920s–1930s  267
Preservation of Community  268
Church Growth amid Economic Woes  273
Mennonite Brethren in Christ Theology Evolves  278
Forms of Separation  280
Investing in Overseas Missions  283
Divisions within the Old Order  285
Plymouth Brethren or Mennonite Brethren?   287
The Frema Geisht  289
Conclusions  290
9: Ontario Mennonites in Wartime, 1939–1950  293
Claiming Mennonite Privileges  294
The Conference of Historic Peace Churches  301
Wartime Service  310
Mennonites in the Military  322
Conclusions  325
10: Reshaping and Preserving the Mennonite Promised Lands, 1945–1960s  327
Postwar Immigration  329
Mennonite Central Committee in Canada  335
The Promised Land is No Longer Mennonite  341
Education for Preservation  347
Conclusions  359
11: Faithfulness as Assimilation, Faithfulness as Nonconformity, 1950–1970  361
Venturing to the Cities  363
Immigrant Mennonite Language Transition  369
Engaging the Business World  372
Faithfulness: Conformity or Nonconformity?  376
Visible Symbols of Separation  385
Changing Family Culture  388
Media  390
Faithfulness Means Separation  394
Conclusions  403
12: Identity Preservation through Institutions, 1945–1970  405
Shifts in Congregational Life  406
Confident Institution Building  416
Conclusions  432
13: New Participants in the Promised Lands, 1950s–1990s  435
Old Colony Mennonites  437
Old Order Amish Immigration  445
Other Groups  449
Northern Light Gospel Mission  450
Ontario Mennonites in 1967  452
The Vietnam War, Central American Revolution, and Refugee Assistance  454
New Languages Join the Ontario Mennonite Community  460
Integration of New Cultures  467
Conclusions  468
14: Nonconformity Leads to Growth, 1970 into the Twenty-First Century  471
The Flourishing and Changing Old Order  474
Low German Mennonites Multiply and Diversify  483
Conservative Expansion and Realignment  501
Conclusions  519
15: Assimilated Mennonites Join the Mainstream, 1970 into the Twenty-First Century  521
Accelerating Urbanization  523
Conrad Grebel University College  532
Mennonite Education or Alternative Education?  536
Theological Diversity  542
Lobbying Government  559
Christian Peacemaker Teams  562
Housing  564
Marred Images  564
Selling the Mennonite Brand  567
Conclusions  571
16: Looking Back, Looking Forward  573
Ontario Mennonites and Amish in the Twenty-First Century  581
Appendix: The Four Types of Ontario Mennonites and Reflections on Their Futures  589
Assimilated Mennonites (AM)  589
Separatist Conservatives (SC)  590
Evangelical Conservatives (EC)  591
Old Orders (OO)  592
Notes  595
Glossary  757
Bibliography  767
Index  833
Studies in Anabaptist and Mennonite History Series  872
The Author  877

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